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Indonesia: definition of agroforestry cocoa systems

In May 2023, Fambolena carried out a mission in Indonesia in collaboration with EcoAct on behalf of Barry Calleb aut. This mission aimed to propose cocoa cultivation schemes under agroforestry cover adapted to family farms in the islands of Sumatra and Sulawesi. Fambolena was responsible for collecting field data, analyzing farmer practices and proposing agroforestry schemes as well as associated PES systems. EcoAct, which led this mission, notably dealt with the carbon credit aspects generated by these agroforestry systems.

After a documentary review focusing in particular on experiences in agroforestry in South-East Asia and on a benchmark of PES experiences around the world, Fambolena left for 3 weeks in Indonesia to meet farmers, the teams of Barry Callebaut , their partners as well as various actors who have carried out actions in the field of agroforestry in Indonesia such as ICRAF and RainForest Alliance.

We visited 18 plantations, 4 demonstration plots, 6 nurseries, 2 woodyards and met 35 producers and 67 Barry Callebaut technicians in the "regencies" of East Lampung (Sumatra), Polewali, Pinrang and Sopeng (Sulawesi) to understand what were the farmers practices, their expectations and the constraints of cocoa producers.

Cocoa is a relatively recent crop in Indonesia. It was mainly developed on the island of Sulawesi. It covers various situations:

  • relatively flat areas with sandy soils where the coconut palm is very present such as in East Lampung and in parts of Polewali, Pinrang and Sopeng. Coconut trees are often associated with other crops. On the edges of rice fields but also within cocoa plots. Other fruit species are also found mixed with cocoa trees.

  • areas of hills and mid-mountains with strong slopes and fertile soils from forest clearing. In these areas, cocoa is associated with a wide diversity of fruit trees: durians, coves, avocado trees, betel nuts, breadfruit trees, clove trees, aren palms, bcandle nuts, longan, guava , nutmeg, coffee, sago palms, etc. .

Large timber species are rarely present. Producers generally only keep them at the edge of cocoa plots because they fear competition from the canopy for light and from the root systems for water and nutrients.

Lampung 28-Parc à bois Banjarayung-ombrage cocotiers & avocats -04052023.jpg

Association cacao, cocotiers et avocatiers - East Lampung

west Sulawesi 24-Benuang-parcelle sumayla-cacao sous Durian & La,sium-07052023.jpg

Cacao sous Durian et Lanse - Polewali

Lampung 52-parcelle Mr Sukoji-Mindi (Melia azedarach) -04052023.jpg

Association cacao, cocotiers et Melia azedarach- East Lampung

South Sulawesi 25-Soppeng-Udjum-parcelle Alimi-gliricida-09052023.jpg

Cacao sous Gliricia- Sopeng

After a first phase of data collection on farmers' practices, species encountered in cocoa plots, capacities of nurseries, Barry Callebaut' activities, interview of researchers and other stakeholders on agroforestry, we held workshops in each of the four “regencies” with producers and Barry Callebaut teams to present and discuss the drafts of agroforestry models.

workshop West sulawesi-Kanuruang-06.jpg
workshop West sulawesi-Kanuruang-16.jpg

The comments of the participants in these workshops allowed us to propose five complex agroforestry models adapted to distinct situations (soils, reliefs and farmers' wishes). These are complex agroforestry models with 3 strates (+ the the floor level) a minimum of 7 different species, around 40% of shae and 70 to 80 non-cocoa trees per hectare. These models are intended to be flexible. If the targets in terms of tree densities on each level and the number of different species are defined, we suggested to Barry Callebaut to leave each producer the choice of species and their arrangement within the plot.


EcoAct then took over to simulate the quantities of carbon that these agroforestry models can store.

SAF 2.jpg
SAF 1.jpg

We then made proposals for Payment for Environmental Services as well as an action plan and a five years implementation planning together with a first estimate of the budget of agroforestry program.

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